10. Glossary

Access Statement should show how the design of a proposed development addresses the principles of inclusive design and access for people. The precise form and level of detail contained within a statement will vary according to the specific development proposals; however each should demonstrate how the accessibility of a development is an integral part of the design and long-term management of the development.

Advertisement means any word, letter, model, sign, placard, board, notice, device or representation, whether illuminated or not, in the nature of, and employed wholly or partly for the purposes of advertisement, announcement or direction. For more detailed definition see s.336 Town and Country Planning Act 1990 (as amended).

Affordable Housing encompasses both low cost market and subsidised housing, to be made available to people who cannot afford to purchase dwellings or rent housing association accommodation on the open market.

Agri – Environment relates to incentive payments available to farmers to voluntarily pursue less intensive forms of agriculture that are of benefit to the environment.

Air Quality Management Areas (AQMA) are locations where the Council believes that national air quality objectives are not likely to be achieved. A Local Air Quality Action Plan will be formulated to improve the air quality within such areas. Councils have been carrying out a review and assessment of air quality in their area since December 1997. This involves measuring air pollution and trying to predict how it will change in the next few years.

Ancient Semi-Natural Woodland (ASNW) are those which have had continuous woodland cover since 1600 to the present day and have only been cleared for underwood or timber production. They are composed of native tree species that have not obviously been planted.

Appropriate Assessment of plans and projects is required under the European Habitats Directive where they are, alone, or in combination with other plans and projects, likely to have significant impact on Natura 2000 sites (SPAs and SACs).

Aquifer is a permeable geological feature capable of both storing and transmitting water in significant amounts.

Archaeologically Sensitive Areas (ASA) are designated areas of archaeological resource within the County, as identified by Glamorgan Gwent Archeologically Trust.

Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) is an area which whilst lacking sufficient countryside suitable for recreation and National Park status, is nonetheless of such fine landscape quality that it is on a par with National Parks and there is a national as well as a local interest in keeping it so.

Best Practical Environmental Option (BPEO) is the outcome of a systematic and consultative decision-making procedure which emphasises the protection and conservation of the environment across land, air and water. The BPEO procedure establishes, for a given set of objectives, the option that provides the most benefits or the least damage to the environment as a whole, at acceptable cost, in the long term as well as in the short term.

Biomass refers to any material that derives from recent animal or vegetable sources (i.e. does not include fossil fuels).

Bring Site also known as a recycling site, is a location where one or more recycling banks or containers are situated close to one another.

Bulky Goods are those items typically too large or heavy to transport on foot, which usually require large floor areas for display. Examples include DIY goods, gardening products, carpets, white electrical goods and furniture.

Civic Amenity Sites are facilities provided by the Council, where the public can dispose of waste, including bulky items, garden waste and recyclables.

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) refers to a system / installation where there is simultaneous generation of usable heat and power (usually electricity) in a single process.

Community Transport encompasses a range of transport services, typically run by voluntary organisations, which aim to provide mobility for people who cannot access conventional public transport, either because it does not exist where it is needed or because of a personal disability. These include dial-a-ride services, car schemes run with volunteer drivers, and other communitybased transport initiatives.

Comparison Goods are items that are not generally purchased on a frequent basis, which the purchaser will compare on the basis of price, quality and design. These include clothing, footwear, household furnishings, furniture, domestic appliances and items for recreational use.

Controlled Water includes rivers, lakes, ponds, streams, canals, coastal waters, estuaries and groundwater.

Convenience Goods are items that are purchased on a regular basis for relatively immediate consumption including food, drinks, newspapers, tobacco and confectionery.

Cultural Environment relates to the local distinctiveness of an area, particularly use of Welsh language, community identity and social fabric.

Definitive Map and Statement is the legal record of the status and location of public rights of way (footpaths, bridleways and byways open to all traffic).

Derogation is an authorised departure from the system of protection.

Design Statements are an explanation of what design principles have been adopted in the preparation of a scheme, including written and illustrative material, an accurate survey of levels on and adjacent to the site, and showing proposals in their wider as well as their immediate context.

District Heating Schemes involve the installation of a community heating main and central boiler house, The use of community heating networks utilising CHP or low carbon fuels may be investigated for large scale developments.

District Shopping Centres are defined as shopping centres normally anchored by at least one supermarket or a superstore with an emphasis on the sale of food and other day-to-day convenience goods. Some larger centres may also support a wide range of comparison goods outlets and other essential services.

Environmental Capital means areas, species or resources within the environment that are considered valuable assets of the County, the loss and/or depletion of which would be considered detrimental to its standing.

Environmental Impact Assessment is a process that evaluates the likely environmental consequences of a development and considers how the severity of the impacts could be minimised. Applicants for certain types of development, often larger schemes, are required to submit an Environmental Statement to accompany a planning application, in order to set out the findings of the EIA process so that a decision on whether to grant permission may be better informed.

Essential Services involve the supply of water, gas, electricity, telecommunications, provision of sewerage infrastructure and other utility services necessary for modern life.

Exceptional Circumstances with respect to Public Rights of Way are defined as schemes where community benefit is demonstrated to be the primary purpose of the development and without a diversion it would be impossible for the scheme to go ahead.

Factory Outlets are retail outlets selling seconds and end-of-line goods at discounted prices outside the ‘high street’ or locations divorced from sources of production.

Farm Diversification is defined as farm based new rural enterprise, subsidiary to the running of the agricultural business.

Fossil Fuels are fuel sources that have finite stocks such as coal, oil and gas and are depleted by their use. Burning these leads to net increases in CO2 emissions as they release carbon locked away for millions of years.

Green Corridors are part of the greenspace system. The corridors are formed by a chain of valuable natural and semi-natural greenspace sites, which link wildlife reservoirs into the urban area.

Green or Sustainable Tourism is an approach to tourism which aims to meet the needs and interests of visitors, the local community and the tourism industry without compromising the environment (wherever possible enhancing it) for now and in the future.

Greenspace System is defined as areas of natural or semi-natural greenspace within or adjacent to the urban area that either singly or collectively: -

Ground Source Heat Pumps are electrically powered systems that tap the stored energy from the ground below the frost line. Heat pumps are a device which moves heat from one place to another. These systems use the earth's relatively constant temperature to provide heating, cooling, and hot water for homes and commercial buildings.

Ground Waters are any water contained in underground strata, including soils.

Gypsies are persons of a nomadic habit of life, whatever their race or origin. Hard Sea Defences are man made rigid structures, usually constructed from concrete and steel e.g. sea walls and breakwaters. They tend to have a high impact on the environment and have been known to lead to the acceleration of erosion at other coastal locations.

Heritage Coast is a non-statutory designation intended to protect areas of undeveloped coast from development, and through management balance the needs of conservation, recreation, tourism and commercial activity. This designation does not affect the status of the area in planning terms. The Heritage Coast relates to the coastline which runs between the mid point of Caswell Bay around the peninsula to Salthouse Point in Crofty.

Historic Environment encompasses archaeology and ancient monuments, listed buildings, conservation areas and historic parks, gardens and landscapes (as referred to in Section 6.1. of PPW, 2001).

Home Zone is a residential street or group of residential streets designed to suit the needs of pedestrians and cyclists rather than motorists. The aim is to balance the needs of the road users with those using the street and to make these areas safer, healthier and more enjoyable.

Homesteading is the discounted sale of unimproved properties, usually Council stock, for renovation by first time buyers.

Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs) are property occupied by a number of unrelated people not living together as a single family household. The term covers bedsits, non self-contained flats, houses shared and lodgings.

Human Scale is the proportional relationship of the physical environment to human dimensions, acceptable to public perception and comprehension in terms of the size, height, bulk, and/or massing of buildings or other features of the built environment.

Informal Recreation is defined as being recreation of a low key or an unorganised nature which does not detract from the quiet enjoyment of the countryside by others or conflict with agricultural land uses.

Infrastructure The basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society, such as transportation and communications systems, water and power lines.

Interim Housing Land Policy Statement (IHLPS) is adopted SPG releasing additional land for housing pending adoption of the UDP to remedy deficiencies in the statutorily required five-year housing land supply throughout the County.

Joint Housing Land Availability Studies (JHLAS) are undertaken annually by a study group coordinated by the land division of WAG. Groups comprise the Council, WAG, HBF, national and local housebuilders, local housing associations, statutory undertakers and other bodies as appropriate. Their purpose is to monitor land availability, provide an agreed statement of need and highlight action required if there is an insufficient supply.

Land for Community Recreation Purposes includes playgrounds, public parks, playing fields/courts, school playing fields/school yards and land without general public access such as private sports grounds and allotments.

Landmap is a computer based landscape assessment and decision making process designed by CCW to cover the whole of Wales.

Lane is a narrow country road or city street, usually only wide enough for a single line of vehicles.

Leisure Facilities include sports, recreation, social, arts and cultural land uses/activities within Class D2 (assembly and leisure) and Class D1 (non-residential institutions), and commercial leisure uses within Class A3 (food and drink) of the Town and Country Planning Use Classes Order (1987) (as amended).

Lifetime Homes are homes that are accessible, flexible, adaptable and designed to meet changing needs occurring throughout one family's lifetime or to meet the varying needs of numerous changes of occupier in the same home. They incorporate 16 design features such as level access, wider doors and corridors and a downstairs toilet, whilst making provision for such future installations such as lifts and showers.

Local Biodiversity Action Plan is a strategic document that outlines how the most urgent priorities for wildlife conservation (both species and communities of organisms) can be promoted.

Local Nature Reserves are sites that the Council considers should be managed as a nature reserve. They are declared and managed by the Council under Section 21 of the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949.

Local Services include shops, doctors, schools, employment, leisure and recreation opportunities, churches and other religious establishments.

Local Shopping Centres are defined as areas of retail provision, in some instances supported by other commercial units, which are smaller than Town or District Centres and primarily concerned with meeting the day-to-day shopping needs of the local community.

Material Considerations are the matters that should be taken into account when determining a planning application or an appeal against a planning decision, which includes the policies set out within the UDP.

Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) is a combination of mechanical and biological processes employed to achieve stabilisation of residual wastes prior to landfilling.

Micro-generation refers to the generation of electricity up to 50 kilowatts, or the production of heat up to 45 kilowatt thermal from zero or low carbon source technologies.

Mineral Resources are natural resources in the form of minerals.

MW (Mega Watt) is a unit of electrical power equal to one million watts or one thousand kilowatts.

National Nature Reserves are land of national nature conservation importance and which is appropriately managed as a nature reserve. CCW designate NNRs based on powers stemming from the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949.

National Playing Fields Association Standard recommends a minimum outdoor playing space of 2.4 hectares (6 acres) per 1000 head of population. Depending on the population profile of the locality concerned the total standard should be met by an aggregation of spaces within the ranges of 1.6-1.8 ha (4-4.5 acres) of outdoor sport and 0.6-0.8ha (1.5-2 acres) of children’s playing space.

Natura 2000 are a network of protected areas across the European Union, comprising SACs, SPAs and Ramsar sites.

Natural Heritage refers to geology, landforms, biodiversity, natural beauty and amenity. It embraces the relationships between landform and landscape, habitat and wildlife, and their capacity to sustain economic activity and to provide enjoyment and inspiration. It includes statutorily designated sites, urban areas, the countryside, the coast and open water features.

New Development is the carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other operations in, on, over, or under land, or the making of a material change in the use of any building or land. This definition is set out in Section 55 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 and encompasses alterations to existing buildings as well as the construction of new buildings.

Optimum Use Centres are an initiative to extend the use of school facilities by the general public outside of school hours.

Out-of-Centre is a location clearly separate from the City, District or Local Centres, but not necessarily outside the urban area.

Out-of-Town is an out of centre development on a greenfield site, or on land not clearly within the current urban area.

Percent for Art seeks to realise the production and installation of artworks within or close to key development sites for the specific enhancement of the 'public faces' of these sites.

Planted Ancient Woodland Sites (PAWS) are ancient woods in which some of the native tree species have been replaced, often with non-native trees. Important features of ancient woodland often survive in many of these woods, including characteristic flora and fauna.

Pocket Sites are part of the greenspace system. They are small areas of natural or semi-natural greenspace within urban areas that make a significant contribution to the character and/or environmental quality of a locality and the wider greenspace network. Pocket sites form important links into larger green corridors and wildlife reservoirs. They can include small areas of woodland, wetland, open water, species rich grassland, heathlands and groups of mature trees. Examples of land uses that can act as pocket sites include cemeteries, allotments, and playing fields.

Previously Developed Land is defined as land that is, or was, occupied by a permanent structure and/or associated fixed surface infrastructure, along with unrestored land previously used for mineral extraction or waste disposal. The definition excludes agricultural and forestry buildings in the countryside and undeveloped land in built-up areas such as parks, recreation grounds, school playing fields, allotments and urban greenspace. Also excluded is previously developed land where the remains of any structure or activity have now blended into the landscape as a result of natural regeneration processes to the extent that it can reasonably be considered to form part of the natural surroundings.

Primarily Employed relates to the employment which provides the main source of income for a household.

Priority Natural Habitat Types and Priority Species are recognised valuable habitats and species, they can be important on an international, national and local level. Priority habitat types and priority species are identified within the Habitat Directive Annex 1 & 2 and Conservation (Natural Habitats & C) Regulations 1994.

Prominent Skylines are those which occupy a dominant position in the near to middle distance in views accessible to large numbers of residents or tourists.

Proposals Map illustrates the detailed UDP policies and proposals, defines sites for particular developments and land uses and areas to which specific policies will be applied.

Proximity Principle requires that waste should generally be disposed of as near to its place of production as possible.

Public Realm covers those parts of the County that are available, without charge, for everyone to use and enjoy. Such areas can include streets, pedestrianised areas, parks, promenade, and coastal/river paths that may be publicly or privately owned.

Qualitative Need is the requirement for an improved retail offer and enhanced shopping facilities to provide adequate consumer choice and an attractive mix of shops, services and other land uses. Qualitative indicators can include: diversity of retail, leisure and service provision; accessibility by a range of transport; quality of buildings and shopfronts; and the availability of public open space and seating.

Quantitative Need is the requirement for additional retail floorspace to meet a shortfall in provision, based on objective evidence relating to existing and forecast populations and levels of available expenditure in relation to the classes of goods to be sold.

Ramsar Sites are internationally important wetland sites, which are especially valuable as a waterfowl habitat. They are designated under the Ramsar convention on wetlands of international importance.

Reasonable Access to shops and essential services is defined as being a maximum distance of one mile from a grocery shop or Post Office. In most cases, satisfaction of this criterion automatically ensures reasonable proximity to other community facilities such as schools.

Regionally Important Geological/Geomorphological Sites are locally designated earth science sites, which are selected using nationally agreed criteria.

Renewable Energy covers those sources of energy, other than fossil fuel or nuclear fuel, which are continuously and sustainably available in our environment.

Residual Method is comparison of the quantity of land agreed by the JHLAS to be genuinely available for housing development with the remaining housing provision in the adopted development plan.

Retail Park is a group of 3 or more retail warehouses which are either directly linked to one another in some way or occupy adjoining sites.

Retail Warehouse is a single storey retail outlet, normally of 929 sq.m. gross or more, specialising in the sale of bulky goods and offering free adjacent ground level car parking.

Riparian Corridors are part of the greenspace system. They relate to habitats along water courses and can include extensive areas adjacent to rivers and streams.

Seascapes are views seawards from, landwards towards, or along, any coastline and its hinterland and the effect on landscape of the conjunction of sea and land.

Section 106 Agreement under the provisions of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 (as amended) enables the Council to reach agreement with developers, or for developers to give undertakings for measures to be carried out in conjunction with a development.

Sensitive Development is development such as residential development, hospitals and schools that would be sensitive to adverse impact.

Simplified Planning Zone is an area within which the Council may wish to stimulate development and encourage investment. A specified planning permission is granted within the zone, which can remove the need for an application for planning permission and the payment of planning fees.

Sites Of Interest For Nature Conservation (SINCs)are locally designated sites that have been tested against regional scientific criteria and which seek to ensure, in the public interest, the conservation, maintenance and enhancement of species, habitats, geological and geomorphological features within a national, regional and local context.

Sites Of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are areas of land which in the opinion of the CCW are of special interest by reason of their flora, fauna or geological or physiogeographical features. They are protected for nature conservation rather than landscape value but often contribute to landscape protection. SSSIs are designated under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981(as amended by the CROW Act 2000).

Soft Sea Defences are designed to encourage natural sea defences. Examples include beach replenishment and allowing saltmarshes and mudflats to develop. They tend to be long term and sustainable solutions.

Source Protection Zones are a series of concentric zones around an abstraction borehole within which special policies apply to activities that might affect groundwater.

Special Areas of Conservation are internationally important habitats designated under the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC).

Special/Hazardous Waste is defined under the Special Waste Regulations 1996 (as amended) as: wastes on the Hazard Waste List displaying hazardous properties; any other controlled wastes displaying defined properties (e.g. irritant) and waste prescription only medicines.

Special Interest and Activity Tourism includes walking, cycling, fishing, golf, equestrian, watersports, adventure sports, cultural and heritage tourism.

Special Landscape Areas can be designated by Councils in development plans where it is considered that a previously unprotected area is important to the overall landscape of the plan area in terms of its intrinsic value, contribution to the visual setting of settlements and the wider historic environment.

Special Protection Areas (SPA) are internationally important areas for birds classified under the Birds Directive (79/409/EEC).

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is an appraisal of the environmental impact of larger scale plans and programmes (such as a UDP), where the implementation of its policies/strategies are considered to have significant environmental consequences. The process is a statutory requirement to comply with EU Directive 2001/42/EC, requiring early consultations with key agencies in order to compile an environmental report, the results of which feed into policy development and decision making.

Strategic Search Area (SSA) is an area that has been identified at a strategic level as having the general characteristics that lend themselves to the accommodation of large wind farms.

Sustainability Appraisal (SA) is a process that considers the extent to which the components of sustainable development (economic development, social well being, environmental protection and resource conservation) have been integrated within the UDP.

Sustainable Communities are places where people want to live and work, now and in the future. They meet the diverse needs of existing and future residents, are sensitive to their environment, and contribute to a high quality of life. They are safe and inclusive, well-planned, built and run, and offer equality of opportunity and good services for all.

Sustainable Development is defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) as: "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." This internationally adopted principle requires that social, economic and environmental issues be addressed at the same time as when taking planning decisions and developing policies.

Sustainable Drainage Systems use techniques that mimic natural drainage processes to control surface water run-off as close to its origin as possible, before its enters a watercourse.

Tandem Development consists of the development of one house immediately behind another (usually within the rear curtilage of the existing property and sharing the same access).

Tele-cottaging is working from an office, usually in a rural community, equipped with computers and electronic communications equipment for use by individuals and business in the area.

Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1997 identifies the following uses and classes of development:

 Use Class
 A1 Shops
 A2 Financial and Professional Services
 A3 Food and Drink
 B1 Office, High Technology, Light Industry
 B2 General Industry
 B8 Storage and Distribution
 C1 Hotels
 C2 Residential Institutions
 C3 Dwelling houses
 D1 Non-Residential Institutions
 D2 Assembly and Leisure
 Sui Generic Uses that do not fall within any Class. Examples include amusement centres petrol filling stations, theme parks, marinas, etc.


Transport Assessment (TA) is an appraisal of the traffic and transport implications of a development scheme, which may be required in support of a planning application to show how the proposal will comply with the aims of the Council's integrated transport strategy. As well as considering the impact on the highway network and traffic flows, a Transport Assessment should also include details of measures to improve access by public transport, walking and cycling and reduce the number of journeys by private car.

Travel Plan is a co-ordinated package of measures that are designed to bring about a shift towards more sustainable travel. This typically involves initiatives that promote and improve public transport services, increase the incidence of walking and cycling and reduce reliance on the private car. Tailored towards the requirements of a particular site and/or premises, they are often undertaken by an employer or organisation to mitigate the adverse traffic and transport impacts of a development and may be formally agreed in association with the granting of planning permission.

Travelling Showpeople are self-employed business people who travel the country holding fairs chiefly during summer months.

Tree Preservation Orders (TPOs) protect trees under threat and considered to be of amenity value. TPOs can be placed on individual trees, groups of trees and woodlands and require the replacement of any felled trees.

TWh (Terrawatt hour) is a unit for measuring energy. 1 terrawatt equals 1,000 GW.

Use Classes - see Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1997

Voids in the context of the UDP refer to empty properties.

Waste Hierarchy is used to advise on waste management options. Reduction of waste and the use of natural resources is at the top of the hierarchy, followed by re-use of materials and products, recovery of value through recycling and composting, recovery of value through energy recovery and finally disposal of waste to landfill or incineration without energy recovery.

Waste Transfer Station is a site to which waste is delivered for sorting prior to transfer to another place for recycling treatment or disposal.

Wildlife Reservoirs are part of the greenspace system. They consist of extensive areas of natural and semi-natural greenspace which are situated mainly on the edge of the urban area/countryside but can also be located within the urban area. Through their scale wildlife reservoirs can accommodate a diversity of wildlife.

Windrow Composting is a method of composting in which biodegradable materials are placed in long piles (windrows), which are turned periodically to aid the composting process. The process can take place either outdoors or undercover.

Winter Quarters are bases for travelling showpeople for the storage of caravans, vehicles and fairground equipment as well as for residential purposes during the winter months.

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